The spongy lymphatic tissue cluster in the area between the nose and throat, right behind the nasal cavity, on the top of the mouth and named as nasopharynx, is called Adenoid. Adenoid produces the necessary antibodies to clean bacteria and viruses in the air taken through the nose, prevents viruses and bacteria that are harmful to the body, acts as an early warning system for the immune system, and as a natural consequence, protects babies and children against diseases.
Adenoid works together with tonsil and tonsil tissue and creates a protective lymph ring against viruses, bacteria and toxins that try to enter the body through respiration and digestion.
In parallel with a child's development, the immune system develops various defense mechanisms to protect the body. Therefore, the delicate adenoid with weaker defenses usually begins to shrink after the age of 5 years and disappears completely in the following years.
Adenoid, which is an important defense system against viruses, bacteria and toxins in the inhaled air and protects the body and the immune system, may become larger than usual or become inflamed due to genetic and allergic reasons. Reaching of nasal flesh to abnormal sizes and the increase in tissue is called Adenoid Hypertrophy/Adenoid Vegetation. Adenoid enlargement and infection begins to appear in infants after 6 months and affects children between the ages of 2 and 8. The growing adenoid obstructs the air taken and makes breathing difficult.
Adenoid infection turns the adenoid, which is a defense system in fact, into a potential disease factor with bacteria and viruses it hosts.
In some children, adenoid has a large structure from birth. In children with a normal sized adenoid, this may grow due to allergic reactions, chronic infections, rarely seen cancerous tumors, excessively polluted air or constantly inhaling cigarette smoke. Adenoid enlargement may appear with some symptoms as indicated below:
Nasal obstruction, difficulty in breathing through the nose so breathing through the mouth, wheezing,
Nasal speech with a feeling of nasal obstruction,
Sore throat and difficulty in swallowing, nasal discharge,
Sleep disturbances, holding breath while sleeping (sleep apnea), snoring, insomnia and fatigue,
Formation of gland and lipoma in the neck area,
Sinusitis, ear infection, tympanum problems, hearing problems,
Lack of appetite, growth retardation and developmental disorder of facial bones.
Physiological examination of the ear, nose and throat area is performed first to diagnose adenoid growth. When deemed necessary, radiographic or endoscopic monitoring can also be performed.
The first treatment applied after the diagnosis of adenoid growth or infection is medication. The appropriate ones among antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants, painkillers and nasal sprays are used to suppress inflammation and provide recovery. However, this treatment should not be prolonged or persisted to avoid side effects of the drugs used.
If medication treatment does not provide good results and the problems persist, surgery is the best method because the adenoid has started to pose a threat to the immune system.
Adenoid surgery (adenoidectomy) is performed provided that there is recurrence or continuous growth and/or inflammation, and the medical treatment applied does not provide the expected results. Removal of adenoid does not collapse the immune system as there are other tissues and structures in the immune system that do the duty of adenoid. However, adenoid may become a major source of disease unless it is treated.
Surgical intervention should be performed without wasting any time, particularly when there are problems such as breathing difficulties, non-responsive to medication and frequently recurrent adenoid infection, sleep apnea, speech disorder, heart failure, developmental disorders in the tooth and jaw area, and tumor diagnosis.
Adenoid surgery is a small-scale surgery performed under anesthesia. It is removed through the inner mouth area without any external incision.
A patient, who is applied cold compress post operation, is kept under observation for a few hours and is discharged. Supportive intervention can be performed in case of excessive bleeding or breathing difficulties.
The adenoid may possibly regenerate and grows again. In case that the disease recurs, the treatment method is applied over again.
In the days following the operation, foods with low acidity and spice can be consumed on condition that they are not too hot or cold. Children should be kept away from crowd environments and activities such as schools, kindergartens, cinemas, theaters, etc. Also, the patients should not have excessively hot showers for 1-2 weeks.
Adenoid problems cause many different problems and diseases in the short and long term:
Chronic sinusitis, ear infection, tympanum problems, hearing problems,
Impairment in the anatomical structure of the nose,
Sleep disturbances and holding breath while sleeping (sleep apnea),
Developmental disorder in facial bones,
Structural disorders in oral and dental areas,
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Introversion and adaptation to school and environment are the most common problems.
Even though adenoid surgery depends on the condition of each patient and problem, it usually takes about half an hour. However, if different areas such as sinus, tonsil and ear are intervened along with adenoid surgery, this period increases.
The patients have a mild sore throat for a few hours post operation. Approximately a week later post 1 or 2 days of light diet, patients can recover and return to daily life.
Adenoid surgery is generally safe and postoperative complications are limited in healthy individuals. However, the possible side effects and risks of the operation are as shown below:
The risk of infection, which can be seen in all surgical interventions, applies for adenoid surgery too. The same applies for the risk of anesthesia,
Infection and bleeding,
High fever and sore throat,
Nausea and vomiting,
If your child has nasal obstruction, difficulty in breathing, wheezing, nasal speech, continuous nasal discharge, difficulty in swallowing, sleep apnea and snoring problems, you can reach us via our contact information.